Geographical Location: Ukraine is located in southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea. Ukraine is situated between 44″20′ and 52″20′ north latitude, and 22″5′ and 41″15′ east longitude.
Map references: Commonwealth of Independent States.
Area: Ukraine is the largest country in Europe among those with entire boundaries within the European continent. The total area of Ukraine is about 603,700 sq. km. It extends 1316 km from west to east, and 893 km north to south.
Area – comparative: slightly smaller than Texas Neighboring Countries: Bordered by (clockwise) Romania (169 km), Moldova (939 km), Romania (362 km) and Hungary (103 km) on the southwest, Slovak Republic (90 km) on the west, Poland (428 km) on the northwest, Belarus (891 km) on the north, and Russia (1,576 km) on the north and on the east.
Total Land Boundaries: 4,558 km.
Coastline: 2,782 km.
Climate: The climate of Ukraine is mostly temperate continental. A subtropical Mediterranean climate is prevalent on the southern portions of the Crimean Peninsula. The average monthly temperature in winter ranges from -8° to 2° C (17.6° to 35.6° F), while summer temperatures average 17° to 25° C (62.6° to 77° F). The Black Sea coast is subject to freezing.
Precipitation generally decreases from north to south; it is greatest in the Carpathians, where it exceeds more
than 1500 mm (58.5 in) per year, and least in the coastal
lowlands of the Black Sea, where it averages less than
300 mm (11.7 in) per year.
Terrain: Almost the entire country of Ukraine is a flat
plain, with elevations generally below 350 m. The
Carpathian Mountains intrude at the extreme west, and
on the southern coast of the Crimean Peninsula the
Crimean Mountains are located. The highest point in
Ukraine is Mt. Hoverla in the Carpathians, with an
elevation of 2061 m.
Land use: Ukraine has extremely fertile black-earth
soils in the central and southern portions, totaling more
than a half of the territory. According to the estimates,
arable land is 56%, permanent crops: 2%, meadows and
pastures: 12%, forest and woodland: 10%, other: 20%.
In 1990 irrigated land was 26,000 sq. km.
Inland Waterways: Most major rivers flow south to the
Black Sea; they include the Dnipro River in central
Ukraine, the Southern Bug and Dnestr rivers in the west,
the Donets River in the east, and the Danube in the far
south. The Western Bug flows northward through the
western part of the country and joins the Vistula, which
empties into the Baltic Sea.
Natural resources: According to the experts, Ukraine
contains approximately 5 per cent of the world’s total
mineral resources. Ukraine has deposits of more than 80
types of minerals. The Donetsk Basin contains huge
reserves of high-quality coal and the nearby iron-ore
deposits of Kryvy Rih are equally rich. Other Ukraine’s
mineral resources include manganese, mercury, titanium,
chromium, nickel, bauxite, uranium, phosphate, sulfur
and peat. Development of the above mentioned mineral
resources under concession agreements along with
transportation and refining of oil and gas are among the
most promising areas for foreign investments.
Natural hazards: n/a
Environment (current issues): inadequate supplies of
potable water air and water pollution deforestation
radiation contamination in the northeast from 1986
accident at Chornobyl Nuclear Power Plant.
Environment (international agreements):
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur 85, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Environmental Modification, Marine
Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent
Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-
Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental
Protocol, Law of the Sea.
Geography note: strategic position at the crossroads
between Europe and Asia; second-largest country in
Population: 46,929,500 (January 2007)
Ethnic groups: Ukrainian 73%, Russian 22%, Jewish 1%,
Religion: predominantly Christian: Ukrainian Orthodox
(Kiev Patriarchate) , Ukrainian Catholic (Uniate) ,
Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox, Protestant, Ukrainian
Orthodox (Moscow Patriarchate) . Other religions like
Islam, Judaism etc. are also professed by some part of
State language: Ukrainian.
Other languages: Russian, Romanian, Polish, Hungarian.
Conventional long form: none.
Conventional short form: Ukraine.
Local long form: none.
Local short form: Ukrayina.
Former: Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic.
Data code: UA.
General Principles and State Power
Government type: Ukraine is a Republic.
Independence: December 1, 1991 (from Soviet Union) .
National holiday: Independence Day – August 24, 1991.
Constitution: adopted on June 28, 1996.
Head of State: President
Head of Government: Prime Minister .
Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament ( Verkhovna
Rada ) with 450 seats (Last elections held in March 1998)
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal.
Legal system: based on civil law system; no judicial
review of legislative acts.
24 oblasts (Cherkaska, Chernihivska, Chernivetska,
Ivano-Frankivska, Kharkivska, Khersonska,
hradska, Kyyivska, Luhanska, Lvivska, Mykolayivska,
Poltavska, Rivnenska, Sumska, Ternopilska, Vinnytska,
Zakarpatska, Zaporizka, Zhytomyrska) ,
1 autonomous republic (The Autonomous Republic of
2 municipalities (misto) with oblast status (Kyiv and
Capital of Ukraine: Kyiv
Currency: 1 hryvna=100 kopiykas
Exchange rates: To view current exchange rates please
click here :
Railroads: total: 23,350 km (broad gauge – 1.524 m);
Highways: total: 273,700 km (paved and graveled:
Inland waterways: 1,672 km perennially navigable
(Prypyat and Dnipro Rivers)
Pipelines: crude oil 2,010 km, petroleum products 1,920
km, natural gas 7,800 km (1992)
Seaports: Berdiansk, Illichivsk, Izmayil, Kerch, Kherson,
Mariupol, Mykolayiv, Odesa, Pivdenne, Sevastopol.
Inland port: Kyiv.
DID YOU KNOW…
Ukraine occupies an area of 603,700 square kilometers,
and is among the largest European countries.
Territorially it is larger than France (544,000 sq. km.),
Spain (505,000 sq. km.), Sweden (450,000 sq. km.), and
Poland (312,7000 sq. km.).
In its ethnic composition, Ukraine is a multi-ethnic
Republic, inhabited by more than 110 ethnic groups, of
which Ukrainian (72.7%) are the largest, followed by
Russians, Jews, Belarusians, Moldovans, Bulgarians,
Poles and Hungarians.
The easternmost point is in the township of Milove,
Luhansk Region. The westernmost point is the city of
Chop in Transcarpathia, the distance between them being
1,270 kilometers. In its widest central part, the distance
between the northernmost village of Muravyi in the
Chernihiv Region and the southernmost Sarych
Promontory in Crimea equals 900 kilometers.
The largest mountain system is the Ukrainian
Carpathian Mountains, which are part of the Eastern
Carpathians. The mountains stretch to the west within
the territories of the Transcarpathian, Lviv, Ivano-
Frankivsk and Chernivtsi regions.
The highest mountain peak, Hoverla, is in the Ukrainian
Carpathians within the territories of Transcarpathian and
The Black Sea borders Ukraine to the south. The
Dnieper is the country’s largest river. The deepest river
is the Danube. Yalpug is Ukraine’s largest lake in the
Danube delta of the Odesa Region.
The deepest lake is Svitiaz in the basin of the Southern
Buh. It is one of the Shatsk Lakes in Volyn.
The highest mountain lake is Brebeneskul, between the
Carpathian range of Chornohora and the Hutyn-Tamnatyk
The considerable remoteness from oceans and
continental Siberia tells favorably on the climate of
Ukraine. Almost al of its territory is located in the
temperate zone. On the whole, the climate is
temperately continental, and only on the southern shore
of Crimea is it subtropical.
As of January 1, 1990, Ukraine numbered 436 cities
inhabited by more than 68% of the country’s population.
Over 75% of basic production assets and about 95% of
scientific research institutions are concentrated in these
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